Thursday, 14 October 2010

‘Enough is enough’ declares greyhound owner

In just 3 months greyhound trainer and owner Dave Smith has seen 4 greyhounds retire through injury and the future of a fifth remains in the balance. Now Smith has declared “enough is enough.”

Smith is not a major player within the ‘sport’ of greyhound racing but as the person behind Greyhoundscene - the largest forum for UK members of the racing fraternity - and its associated website site, he is one of the best known.

Earlier this month Smith publicly stated: “I doubt I will ever buy another dog, I work bloody hard to earn a decent living for my family (and) I can no longer look my wife and kids in the face and tell them that’s another few grand I have wasted.”

The recent spate of retirements is said to have cost the owners £16,000. Smith further added that he would today “walk away from this sport” if he was not running the forum.

And the anguish felt by Smith is echoed by members of the racing fraternity across the country. “The sport is in a complete mess. Dogs (are) being injured left, right and centre,” writes owner Lee Calcutt, in a posting on Greyhoundscene.

Clash Hummer, Mustang Beauty, Oakfront Dame and Corrig Vieri are among the many greyhounds whose career on the track was recently prematurely terminated as a result of hock injuries sustained in competition, training or trials.

The scale of injuries has not escaped the attention of the recently formed Greyhound Owners, Breeders and Trainers Association who have described the situation as a “crisis.”

Chairman Martin White is reported saying: “The matter is of serious concern to practitioners, many of whom have been in touch with GOBATA reporting their individual experiences and frustration at what appears to be an inordinate amount of greyhounds suffering serious injuries.”

Discussions have taken place between the group and the ‘sports’ governing body - the Greyhound Board of Great Britain - to try and ascertain if statistics support the “deluge of complaints.”

I wish GOBATA the best of luck. Injuries to greyhounds remains one of the most sensitive and guarded subjects within greyhound racing.

Smith has stated that injuries this year are the worst he has ever known. The owner further added: “I like many others have slowly had the stuffing knocked out of me; recently I have spent more time going to the vets and physios than to the racetrack.”

The summer will typically see a rise in the level of injuries both on and off the track and perhaps there are other underlying causes not yet identified. That said the nature of greyhound racing in Britain - six greyhounds competing against each other on an oval circuit - is inherently lethal.

It is, however, when casualties command significant monetary value that owners question there involvement in the ‘sport’. £200 disposable BAGS runners rarely get a thought.

Friday, 3 September 2010

A study of studies: Why Britain’s greyhound tracks are inherently lethal

The act of racing one greyhound against another is not necessarily hazardous for the dogs. View racing at Odense (Denmark) and rarely will you see an incident resulting in serious injury but Odense is one of the few tracks where greyhounds run on a straight course (over a 260 metre distance).

In Britain, however, as in Ireland (and a number of other countries where greyhound racing is held) the dogs run on an oval-like circuit that essentially comprises two straights leading into tight bends. This configuration can prove lethal for the greyhounds with the risk of injury rising significantly when dogs are pitted against each other.

At the time of writing there are 25 tracks regulated under the Greyhound Board of Great Britain (GBGB) and 12 independent venues across England, Scotland and Wales.

Whilst all of the above are oval-like in configuration, variations exist from track to track in length of straights, banking and tightness of bends. There exists also huge disparity in the depth of sand (used for the surface and middle layers) and composition of base layer that in turn can affect the performance of a track.

Such variations impact on safety as does the maintenance of the track, operation of the mechanical hare, trap draw, grade, race distance and weather conditions. Research to date, however, would indicate that even where all factors relating to safety are judged ideal the frequency of injuries will never fall dramatically whilst dogs are competing on oval-like circuits.

Track ‘improvements’

In May 2008 the track at Owlerton (Sheffield) received both a new surface and drainage system costing in the region £125,000. General Manager Dave Perry was reported saying: “It is all about the welfare of our greyhounds here at Owlerton. The resurfacing of the track will improve our already high standards.”

Owlerton was a track that Perry apparently considered “one of the safest in the country” prior to the work carried out and with no change in its configuration was there ever likely to be a notable reduction in dogs injured?

On Greyhoundscene - the largest internet forum for UK members of the racing fraternity - the following posting was made in July 2008: “What’s going on at Sheffield - injury rates (have) nearly trebled since the track re-laid the surface at massive cost. All sorts of injuries being reported by all trainers - shoulders, wrists, gracilis, hocks… there'll be no sound dogs left at this rate!”

Similarly, two months following ‘improvements’ at Yarmouth Stadium in June 2010 to include a new surface and drainage and costing £190,000, owners were reporting a notable increase in the frequency of injuries - many serious - in both trials and races.

Anomalies in injury rates are inevitable and looking long term I would not expect such rates at either Sheffield or Yarmouth to be higher. By the same token I would be very surprised if either were to fall significantly.

Yarmouth Racing Manager Bill Johnson, speaking in August, believed the level of injuries had changed little since the work carried out. Perry said the injury rate at Sheffield had fallen but refused to say by how much as he felt the information could be used by those who appose racing.

Of course it’s good PR to claim 6 figure sums are being spent in the name of welfare, and I have no doubt that welfare is a factor (injuries to greyhounds are costly for both the owner and the business of racing) but if changes to the track have at best only a marginal impact on safety what other motive could there be for the money invested?

A clue can be found on another internet posting, again concerning the work at Sheffield: “Hopefully (it will) make the conditions fairer and remove the bias when the rain comes.”

Both the promoters and GBGB are seeking to protect and strengthen the integrity of racing. A good track surface, properly maintained, is a prerequisite for a consistent racing environment. This in turn gives the betting public the assurance that race outcomes are based solely on the dog’s ability.

It is further hoped that money being invested in ‘welfare’ will reduce the number of meetings cancelled due to bad weather that again can be very costly for the business of racing.

Injuries, Perry Barr

In a thesis published 1992 and titled The Nature and Incidence of Greyhound Racing Injuries, Agnew BP examined a record of injuries across 953 race meetings at Perry Barr (Birmingham).

Perry Barr was converted from a grass/sand track to a modern all sand facility in 1978 and data was examined from both before and after the change in the running surface was made. It is data relating to the modern facility that of course carries particular weight and the statistics make for interesting reading.

1612 injuries were recorded across 748 meetings. This was broken down as follows: shoulder, 205; carpus, 475; metacarpus, 24; forefoot, 127; hindmuscle, 227; hock, 58; metatarsus, 5; hindfoot, 144; cramp, 234; combination, 54; miscellaneous, 59.

Career ending injuries are commonly hock related and out of the 58 listed above 2 greyhounds were recorded retired and 21 were recorded destroyed. This data, however, is based solely on the immediate post race decision.

Particularly notable is the injury rate as a percentage of runners rose from 4.6 for the year prior to conversion to an all sand facility to 6.6 for the year following conversion. The percentage rate for the all sand facility does later fall (3.9 being the lowest figure) but the difference is not as great as might be expected for the change made in the track surface.

Notable also is the figures for single limb injuries as a percentage of total injuries recorded that rose from 65.2 for the grass/sand track to 81.2 for the all sand facility.

The survey at Perry Barr is one of a number of similar studies both in Britain and abroad across which there exists a lack of uniformity in the recording of information and findings. Where consistency, however, does exist is in the analysis of data and the evident correlation between numerous injuries and track configuration.

Agnew concluded that the principal causal factor for injury patterns was the “definite and set task demanded of these athletes; the racing at speed on tight anti-clockwise tracks.”


Sprinting into a bend increases effective body weight and a human will respond to this by extending the duration of contact each foot has with the ground. As a result, forces on the legs are said to remain constant.

A study, however, by Usherwood JR and Wilson AM and featured in Nature (Vol. 438), found that in greyhounds observed there was no notable change in foot contact timings when the dogs entered a tight bend. As such, forces on the limbs were calculated to increase by approximately 65%.

The use of banking will reduce horizontal loads and this in turn may see a reduction in injury rates. It has been calculated, however, that the degree of banking required to negate such forces would be so high as to generate additional hazards for the greyhounds as well proving almost impossible to maintain.

Indeed modern thinking with regard turn one is to keep the banking to a minimum so allowing the outside dogs to remain wide with the optimum level more a judgement than a science and not easy to ascertain.

At best the bends on a track can be made safer but not safe and injuries are inevitable with the site of injury frequently dictated by the direction of turn. World renowned veterinarian Alessandro Piras gives a figure of 96% for the incidence of central tarsal bone fractures occurring in the right leg.

Bergh MS, in a thesis examining this phenomenon, noted: “These fractures have been classified into five types; all of which usually contain a dorsal slab component. The cause of these fractures has not been rigorously investigated, but it is suspected that racing in a counter-clockwise direction on oval tracks produces cyclic overload of the medial compartment of the right tarsus.”

Dee JF and Dee LG further link track configuration with injury patterns: “The fact that the race is run on a circular track, in a counter-clockwise direction, exacerbates the stresses of racing. These increased stresses are substantiated by the locations of metacarpal/metatarsal injuries: they occur most frequently on the ‘rail’ side of the affected foot, specifically metacarpal V of the left foot, metacarpal II of the right foot and metatarsal III of the right foot.”

Dog interaction

Whilst many of the injuries greyhounds sustain are linked directly with the forces generated through cornering, many of the more serious that include long bone fractures are the result of a fall and/or collision with other dogs.

The potential to lose footing when negotiating the tight bends of a track at speeds of up to 40 mph is high for a greyhound running solo. Pitch six greyhounds against each other and there are an alarming number of incidents in which greyhounds collide and fall.

A survey by Greyhound Watch covering all tracks governed by the GBGB identified turn one as the point on the track where the greatest number of incidents occurs. In January 2010 alone, 109 dogs were recorded falling/brought down in turn one against dogs not finishing/finishing at distance, with the true figure likely much higher.

The above including 4 greyhounds that fell in the opening race at Mildenhall on 15 January, 3 falling in the penultimate race at Nottingham on 05 January and 3 falling in the second race of the evening meeting at Newcastle on 23 January.

As the dogs hurtle into turn one they are reaching a higher speed and are more tightly bunched than at any other point in the race. The result can be mayhem. Further compounding the situation can be wide runners allotted an inside trap (and vice versa) and pups running with seasoned dogs.

With the pressure to fill race cards it is inevitable that on occasion greyhounds are not ideally placed as Andrew Johnston posting on Greyhound Knowledge Forum is only too aware: “I had a pup run at Newcastle… it was bowled over 3 times out of 8 races at the first bend, a totally green pup thrown in with seasoned adult racers, the poor pup got so smashed up the third time it had to be put-to-sleep.”

The track bends create also a hazard for the greyhounds on the straights as all 4 turns (that make up one full circuit) influence the conflicting lines greyhounds will run on the straights. This again can result in dogs colliding, with potentially devastating consequences.

Injuries, scale

It is impossible to give an exact annual total for injuries sustained and greyhound’s euthanased as a result of injury. Such information is being collated by the GBGB but is not being made public (against a key recommendation within a Parliamentary Group report published May 2007).

Though it has to be said the industry themselves do not have precise figures. Data compiled is based on track veterinary reports and many injuries are diagnosed only the following day (for the same reason above data recorded for Perry Barr is not complete). It has further been claimed that certain trainers who, at the time of a meeting, suspect a dog to be lame are not always having the animal checked by the vet in attendance.

What information is available, however, gives animal welfare charities and the like a good indication of scale.

Before Walthamstow closed I spoke with the racing office who stated that about 25 greyhounds were put down as a result of injury at the track over a 12 month period. Yarmouth office has given a similar figure. The number of races held at Walthamstow across one full year represented 4.7% of the total for GBGB tracks alone (figure based on the last full year of racing). The same calculation for Yarmouth in 2009 is a disturbing 3.1%.

In August this year the Swindon Advertiser reported the deaths of 4 greyhounds in as many weeks at the local track, all the result of incidents described as “in-running collisions,” and during a particularly awful spate of injuries covering a 4 week period last year at Belle Vue (Manchester), 6 greyhounds had to be destroyed.

At a single meeting on 15 January at Sittingbourne, steward’s recorded 11 greyhounds lame and one greyhound having ‘brokedown’. A further 2 finished at distance after falling. The total for greyhounds recorded lame/brokedown across January-March 2010 at the above track is 75.

It should, however, be noted that steward’s comments only hint at the scale of injuries. Perhaps a better indication of scale is the fact that at any one time a professional trainer will likely have as many as half his/her greyhounds out through injury.

From a wealth of information such as above it is very evident that the number of injuries sustained annually on British tracks is a 5 figure sum, many of which are serious and result in hundreds of greyhounds losing their lives.


The GBGB state that a quarter of a million pounds was spent in 2008 “improving the safety of tracks across the country, reducing injuries and helping to extend racing careers.” The GBGB, however, have yet to publish any evidence that injury rates long-term at any track have fallen dramatically.

And with tracks that are seeing a spate of fatalities apparently already among the safest in the country such evidence is never likely to materialise.

The Swindon racing office, in response to the recent deaths detailed above, is reported saying: “No expense is spared ensuring that we have the finest sand and fixtures on the track, plus the best track preparation, veterinary and racing teams in the business.”

The “finest” didn’t save Rackethall Kenny, Swift Abel, Wots Er Name and Daytwo, nor will the “finest” prevent thousands of greyhounds getting ‘smashed-up’ across the country every year.

Oval tracks are perhaps the most dangerous environment in which to hold greyhound racing. To members of the racing fraternity, however, they are likely the most exciting environment. Will a greyhound get round in one piece and make the winning podium or will it be the greyhound’s last race?

Trainers are undoubtedly passionate about greyhound racing but I have yet to speak to a single trainer who is passionate about greyhounds. The dogs are nothing more than a commodity - essentially a betting medium - and for that reason I do not expect the industry to ever change, fundamentally, the nature of greyhound racing in Britain.


This subject is now covered in Behind the Lights, the Tote and the Non-starters, where additional information is provided.

Monday, 31 May 2010

Greyhound homing scandal

Likely many people shopping recently in the sleepy Suffolk town of Leiston will have spotted an advertisement in the towns pet shop window for “12 greyhounds free to good home(s).” The ad raised various comments including “what will happen to those not taken” and “how come there are twelve available all at the same time!” Scratch the surface and revealed is widespread indiscriminate homing of greyhounds and a quandary the greyhound racing industry will likely never satisfactorily address.

Every year many thousands of greyhounds never make the grade to race or have their career on the track terminated due to injury, age or simply because the dog fell short of expectations. The majority are killed but in what might best be described as a public relations exercise the regulatory body has sought to increase homing figures that just 10 years ago were pitifully low.

The Retired Greyhound Trust (RGT), funded by the racing industry, officially homed 4,725 greyhounds in 2009, a figure that represents about one quarter of greyhounds bred to meet the demand generated by British greyhound tracks. Though a marked improvement on 1,893 in 2001 the annual homing figure has increased little since 2007.

Perhaps, without a massive boost in funding, the RGT is close to the maximum figure obtainable and feedback from members of the racing fraternity would indicate an ever increasing number of trainers are homing dogs independently, essentially for two reasons: the fee or ‘donation’ requested by rescues (to cover in part costs incurred including neutering) and the waiting list that commonly prevails.

The greyhounds advertised in the above pet shop were being off-loaded by trainer Chris Mosdall, a major player at Harlow stadium. When interest was expressed in homing two of the dogs Mosdall sounded delighted. No home check would be carried out and needless to say none of the greyhounds will be neutered prior to homing.

And whilst Mosdall was led to believe I had never previously adopted a greyhound, little advice was given. More worryingly, the trainer didn’t ask any questions about my situation concerning such matters to include work, home and garden. In theory I could be living on the top floor of a block of flats or banned from keeping animals.

Mosdall, however, had the uncanny ability to tell from my voice that the dogs would be well looked after and the opportunity to get rid of one, possibly two greyhounds, quickly at zero cost is of course incidental.

Further consider that a vet may charge in the region £35 to euthanize a track dog and the attraction of advertising a greyhound ‘free to good home’ is all too apparent. Even having the animal shot is not without cost and may result in disciplinary action. And with the survival of racing increasingly dependent on professional trainers and survival for the trainers increasingly dependent on running a large number of dogs such costs are now a key business consideration.

Margins are very tight even for successful players, a point Oxford champion trainer Michael Peterson touched on in conversation last year: “The finances in this sport are piss poor. A lot of trainers are basically just covering their costs which to be honest with you I am. I am not making bundles of money, I’ve got a young family and I have eight to nine dogs here that need homing.”

The result is frequently the independent and indiscriminate homing of greyhounds. Not surprisingly, many such dogs see a quick succession of ownership and many are later found neglected, abused and abandoned.

When of no further use or value as a racing dog, Rum Gal (trained under Margaret Bailey) was not placed with a rescue but rather homed independently and seemingly off-loaded without any concern given for the animal’s future welfare and security. Months later Rum Gal was picked up as a stray on the streets of Norwich.

Tasmanian Diego was given away just 2 days after her career on the track was terminated due to injury. No doubt the trainer, Ian Brown, was elated when the prospective owner, Angela Laver, agreed also to adopt Burgoyne Bunny who had retired through injury 4 days previously. Unable to cope, Laver off-loaded both greyhounds within a couple of weeks of signing the adoption forms. Burgoyne Bunny was later found abandoned in a flat and Tasmanian Diego spent just 3 months in her next ‘forever’ home.

And two young bitches, given away by Mosdall about five months prior to the ad in Leiston pet shop window, were picked up in the Wanstead area in appalling condition. Mosdall was to remark: “The people who do that to dogs should have it done to them, that’s the way I look at it.” My view is trainers should not be allowed to home dogs independently as there is a clear conflict of interest.

Furthermore, there is arguably a breach of Greyhound Board of Great Britain (GBGB) Rules of Racing. Rule 18 covers responsibility of the owner and subsection 1, e states that when a greyhound is sold or found a home this action is to be carried out “responsibly.”

Mosdall was reported to the GBGB but is unlikely to face disciplinary action. Investigation Officer Clive Carr has previously visited Norfolk to follow up a number of similar reported breaches in the above rule but appeared more interested in those making the allegations than the allegations made and did not believe there was a case for any trainer or owner to answer.

Perhaps, as a representative of the regulatory body, this should come as no surprise. Officials no doubt appreciate the difficulties facing trainers and it suits the industry to turn a blind eye. A greyhound indiscriminately homed is still a greyhound homed and collectively the national homing figure receives a significant boost without any funding from the industry. This data can in turn be used to promote greyhound racing. The trainer wins, the industry wins and who cares about the welfare of greyhounds.

A simple amendment to Rule 18 that would help eliminate the above scandal was put to the regulatory body back in 2007 but dismissed out of hand, and whilst very evident apathy prevails so the tragedy will continue.


This subject is now covered in Behind the Lights, the Tote and the Non-starters, where additional information is provided.

Friday, 30 April 2010

Greyhound savaged at top kennels

A greyhound belonging to trainer Jill Llewellin - a major player at Belle Vue stadium - was recently put to sleep after being viciously attacked by another greyhound at Llewellin’s kennels.

The black male called Emerson Brock and affectionately known as Ben was resting in a pen when another male new to the kennels entered the enclosure. What followed Llewellin described as a “challenge between the two as if to (see) who was going to be top dog.”

Ben was not wearing a muzzle and during the fracas that took place pulled free a muzzle being worn by the other greyhound that, according to Llewellin, got Ben round the throat and “literally asphyxiated him.”

Llewellin said it took several minutes to remove the animal’s jaws from Ben, and further added: “Being a nurse I thought I could treat him myself… I walked him back to his kennel but he sort of went downhill overnight and he gradually lost consciousness. In the morning I took him to the vets and we said the best thing was to have him put down which was sad.”

The incident is all the more tragic as Ben was recuperating from injury at the time. In January he was recorded ‘DNF’ at Belle Vue but according to the trainer was “absolutely fine.” However, in a subsequent trial it is thought Ben had torn a shoulder muscle and was since been rested.

Why Ben was not afforded greater protection and, more importantly, why Ben was not seen by a vet immediately after the attack is not clear. Perhaps the beautiful black male would still be alive today if he had previously won the Derby.

It is understood no action is being taken against Llewellin by the Greyhound Board of Great Britain.

Tuesday, 2 February 2010

The killing tracks of Britain

It’s the penultimate race of the mid-day meeting on 13 January at Hall Green greyhound track, Birmingham. As the dogs hurtle down the back straight a stomach-churning crack is heard across the stadium and Gulleen Star quickly pulls up. According to the dog’s trainer Alan Bodell, the black male had “smashed his hock (left) completely in half.” The trainer further ads: “You just have to put them out of their misery as quick as possible… I’ve been in it (greyhound racing) long enough now to know what happens, it’s just not nice.”

The average age for a greyhound to retire from racing is about 3 ½ years after competing in approximately 50 races. Length of career, however, varies greatly and is frequently brought to an abrupt and sometimes horrific end through injury.

It is thought as many as 1,000 greyhounds are put-to-sleep annually following injuries sustained in races and trials on British tracks. And to put that into context, the figure is more than 10 per cent of new registrations in 2009 for greyhounds to compete on tracks regulated by the Greyhound Board of Great Britain (GBGB).

Bodell justifies the death of Gulleen Star by saying greyhounds are for racing and the dog was doing what he enjoyed. It’s a line repeated by trainers over and over again who further justify the exploitation and abuse of greyhounds by referencing horse racing - a sport that in the state of Victoria, Australia, will see a ban on jump racing at the end of the 2010 season following the death of ‘just’ 20 horses over a two year period.

The extreme and unusual weather seen across much of Britain in January saw many greyhound meetings cancelled but where racing was not interrupted it was business as usual with an ever increasing number of greyhounds getting ‘smashed-up’.

For Loughmore Boy race eight at Peterborough on 2 January was to be his last. The beautiful black male collided with Kangaroo Brice on the back straight putting Loughmore Boy into the fence and shattering his left foreleg. Trainer Bryn Ford said the dog was in “such distress, frothing at the mouth… it looked like he was dying of shock.” The track vet quickly ended the animals suffering out of sight of spectators watching from the restaurant and bars.

At Oxford the following day Kilkeedy Blue was PTS after breaking his right hock whilst negotiating turn one and a week later Ardera Express broke his neck after he was bumped and knocked over on the Kinsley track, again whilst negotiating turn one.

Incidents such as the two above bring into question the configuration of tracks that essentially comprise long straights leading into tight bends. Put six greyhounds into the mix and its a recipe for disaster with numerous incidents occurring as the dogs hurtle into turn one (109 dogs recorded falling/brought down in turn one in January alone against dogs not finishing/finishing at distance (with the true figure likely many more)).

Malbay Katie survived the first corner but sadly not the second when running at Doncaster on 22 January. The steward’s comment read as follows: Blk1, Ck2 (baulked 1, checked 2). In reality the blue female was brought down and her right hind leg was “ripped-off” from above the hock, according to trainer Keith Davis, who further added: “Every dog went into the corner together and she was the meat in the sandwich.”

Davis, who described the accident as both “horrendous” and “freak,” sounded genuinely upset when talking about the loss of Malbay Katie but was philosophical also: “Once the dogs leave the trap unfortunately they are on their own and you have to take what comes.”

Many greyhounds are rightly PTS following injury but a large number are also destroyed solely on economic grounds. Indeed the GBGB conveniently provide a box for owners to tick on the ‘retirement’ form for precisely such an occasion (not applicable to national champions that are worth their weight in gold as breeding machines).

Another greyhound to break a hock at Hall Green in January was Glenske Sky. This dog, however, was to possibly escape the veterinarian’s needle. Trainer Gerry Ballentine had the greyhound examined the following day but apparently the injury was a “big job” with “no guarantee there’s going to be any results at the end of it.” The small detail of which hock it was Ballentine couldn’t remember and the black female was PTS on 12 January.

Hock fractures are one of the most common career ending injuries and invariably result in the animal being euthanased. Skywalker Brenda was no exception when her right hock gave way whilst competing at Poole on 15 January. The black female was just 24 months old.

And snapping a foreleg at Perry Barr, Birmingham on 24 January saw Fida Cascada join the tally of greyhounds to lose their life in the first month of racing this year, all in the name of sport, all soon forgotten. There is little room for being sentimental in greyhound racing and dogs can be replaced for a relatively modest sum of money.

In January stewards recorded greyhounds not finishing/finishing at distance 346 times - a figure covering 344 dogs. A further 93 dogs were recorded lame or ‘brokedown’. How many are to race again remains to be seen. How many were PTS is impossible to say - the industry makes sure of that. Injuries to greyhounds (believed a five figure total annually) and greyhounds PTS following injury is the most sensitive and guarded subject within racing.

What the GBGB will tell you is in excess of quarter of a million pounds has been spent on track safety improvement projects in recent years but if feedback from trainers is anything to go by, it has had at best only a marginal impact on the frequency and nature of injuries greyhounds sustain.

Who would have thought that we have in Britain animal welfare law intended to protect animals from pain, suffering and injury.


This subject is now covered in Behind the Lights, the Tote and the Non-starters, where additional information is provided.